Female economists probably did not need a quantitative study to know what more questions are asked when they present themselves than their male counterparts. In fact, many academic female are familiar with the keeprooms, a branch of the meek phenomenon. Female economists probably did not need a formal analysis of the types of questions that are made to know that they face more sentences or hostile consultations than their male companions, either.

But numbers are something good: especially economists, and now there is such a study, courtesy of a group of prominent economists. These researchers plan to publish the new working document with the National Office of Economic Research and, otherwise, to use it to promote change in a field that has historically been little cozy for women.

"This document represents the first systematic analysis of the culture of economics seminars," Co-Authors Pascaline Dupas, Alice Sasser Modestine, Muriel Neiderle and Justin Wolfers, in collaboration with a group of 97 others, wrote. Economists who call themselves the collective of the dynamics of the seminar. "Our findings add emerging literature that document ways in which women economists are treated differently from men, and suggest another potential explanation for their underrepresentation at higher levels within the economy profession."

During 2019, the researchers encode each interaction between one speaker and the hearing of it in more than 450 series of seminars and work work conversations in 33 departments of economy. They did the same for the conversations at the Summer Institute of NBB 2019. Researchers considered gender differences in the frequency of questions and interruptions and gender and antiquity they do. Then, they categorized those questions by type: comments, clarifications, criticisms, suggestions, follow-up, as well as tone: support, condescending, disruptive, degrading, hostile.

talks about their research they face 6.2 questions more than men. Control of various factors (such as gender) on the coders themselves, the composition of the audience and the presenter, these results are maintained.

Women's research presentations tended to attract larger and diverse audiences, but men remained men. Those who do most of the questions. Women also received a greater amount of suggestions and clarification issues, as well as the questions that were condescending or hostile, according to the study.

Despite the warning of the room that was running out of time, the questions continued. In the end, a male teacher insisted on a response to a previous question with which she was not satisfied, he continued talking for a moment when he tried to move on, and instigated a full corner of the room to talk about her. There was no time at the end of P & A, and despite the cheerful answers and trust in all interruptions, this "question" closure (interruption) seemed especially demoralizing.

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In 2018, AEA adopted a professional code of conduct that requires "civil and respectful discourse" and a "professional environment with equal opportunities and fair treatment for all ". Researchers suggest that their data can be read as a classes progress report to see how discipline has arrived, and to what extent it still has to go. In fact, the field has been called to the gender bias before, even in a 2017 study that found that women economists receive less credit than their male co-authors

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